Poultry meat is very popular in the Philippines. Especially chicken is extensively used as an ingredient for making many famous local cuisines, such as adobo. With the increasing demand for poultry, the growth and production of poultry in the Philippines need to be enhanced sustainably.
Chicken broiler and egg production are one of the most progressive businesses in the Philippines today. Expected to produce one billion broilers in 2015, the poultry industry in the Philippines is a significant contributor to the country’s agriculture sector. Despite its strong growth, the poultry industry in the Philippines also looks into implementing sustainable production methods.
Balanced feed which includes supplementing amino acids and creatine helps to improve the productivity of livestock, thus ensuring the sustainability of poultry production. Whereas amino acids have been known as supplements for decades, the benefits of creatine, which is vital in the energy metabolism particularly of muscle cells, are just being understood. Synthesized in the liver from guanidine acetic acid (GAA), creatine is eventually transported to muscles cells and stored as energy. However, during this transportation process, part of the creatine is lost irreversibly and excreted through urine. Hence, there is the need of a steady refilling of the creatine by either de-novo synthesis or dietary intake.
Animals usually form creatine themselves by de-novo synthesis. However for high yielding animals such as broiler chicken, de-novo synthesis is not sufficient to meet creatine needs. Researchers found that approximately 2/3 of broiler chicken’s creatine requirements are met endogenously. Therefore, the remainder must be supplied by diet. Although animal protein sources contain some level of creatine, its inclusion in poultry feeds cannot fulfill the entire requirement. Furthermore, the use of animal protein ingredients is restricted in poultry feed because of its variations in nutrient levels, microbial contaminations and even adulterations.
The deficiency of creatine can be compensated by Evonik’s CreAMINO®, the only supplemental creatine source for broiler nutrition which helps to fulfill the animal’s demand, and improve broiler performance in terms of feed conversion, body weight gain and breast meat yield. On the basis of the facts that 2/3 daily requirement is supplied endogenously and 1.7% of creatine is excreted daily, the GAA requirement of 1kg broiler chicken is about 81.2mg/day. Assuming 1kg broiler consume about 125g feed per day, adding 5% animal protein sources to broiler feeds supplies only a maximum of 13 mg of creatine. However, with only 600g/tonne of CreAMINO® being supplemented to the broiler feed, could already provide sufficient GAA to fulfil the creatine requirement of broiler chicken, hence successfully improving broiler chicken performance.
Besides broiler performance, the increasing levels of CreAMINO® supplementation to broiler breeders can also help to increase the fertility and hatchability of eggs and reduce the mortality of embryos, as CreAMINO® will be absorbed and vertically transferred into the eggs, which will eventually turns into egg creatine. With the increasing amount of egg creatine, it helps the embryo to use these creatine as energy reserves to meet the high demand of energy for the hatching process, especially close to the end of the incubation where oxygen supply is usually limited. Other than that, more egg creatine also helps to increase the myogenesis of the embryo, resulting in more muscle cells on the day of hatching.